Paper 1, Section A: International Relations, 1919-89

▪ How many questions do I answer?
You will choose two questions to answer (40 minutes for each).
There are eight to choose from, but you will only have covered perhaps four of the topics on the paper.

▪ What will the format of the questions be?
Each question consists of a piece of evidence followed by a three-part question following a standard markscheme:
Describe [5] [practice questions]
Explain [7] [practice questions]
Assess [8] [practice questions]

You might like to warm up by trying out this "Play Your Dates Right" Quiz!

Topic

Focus Points

Specified Content

Interactive Exercises

What Caused the First World War?

Did the Alliance System make war more or less likely?
How far did colonial problems create tensions between the Great Powers?
Why were problems in the Balkans so difficult for the Great Powers to solve?
How did the assassination of Franz Ferdinand lead to war?

The origins of the First World War, 1890-1914; the Alliance System, Colonial Rivalries, developments in the Balkans, the crisis of June-July 1914 and the outbreak of war.
Factual Quiz
Cartoon Analysis

Were the Peace Treaties of 1919-23 fair?

What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles?
Why did all the victors not get everything they wanted?
What was the impact of the peace treaty on Germany up to 1923?
Could the treaties be justified at the time?
The peace treaties of 1919-23: the roles of individuals such as Wilson, Clemenceau and Lloyd George in the peacemaking process, the impact of the treaties on the defeated countries, contemporary opinions about the treaties.
Factual Quiz
Cartoon Analysis

To what extent was the League of Nations a success?

How successful was the League in the 1920s?
How far did weaknesses in the League's organisation make failure inevitable?
How far did the Depression make the work of the League more difficult?
How successful was the League in the 1930s?
The League of Nations: strengths and weaknesses in its structure and organisation, successes and failures in peacekeeping during the 1920s, the impact of the World Depression on the work of the League after 1929, the failures of the League in the 1930s, including Manchuria and Abyssinia.
Factual Quiz
Cartoon Analysis

Why had international peace collapsed by 1939?

What were the long-term consequences of the peace treaties of 1919-23?
What were the consequences of the failures of the League in the 1930s?
How far was Hitler's foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939?
Was the policy of appeasement justified?
How important was the Nazi-Soviet Pact?
Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in September 1939?
The collapse of international order in the 1930s: the increasing militarism of Germany, Italy and Japan; Hitler's foreign policy to 1939: the Saar, remilitarisation of the Rhineland, Anschluss with Austria, appeasement, crises over Czechoslovakia and Poland, the outbreak of war.
Factual Quiz
Cartoon Analysis 1 | 2

Who was to blame for the Cold War?

Why did the USA-USSR alliance begin to break down in 1945?
How had the USSR gained control of Eastern Europe by 1948?
How did the USA react to Soviet expansionism?
What were the consequences of the Berlin Blockade?
Who was the more to blame for starting the Cold War, the USA or the USSR?
The origins of the Cold War: the 1945 summit conferences and the breakdown of the USA-USSR alliance in 1945-6; Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe to 1948, and American reactions to it; occupation of Germany and the Berlin Blockade.
Factual Quiz
Cartoon Analysis

Past Questions (you need to answer TWO of these three-part questions).

Observations:

There is usually a question on the origins of World War One.
There has always been a question on International Relations 1919-39.
There is usually a question both on the 1920s and on the 1930s (but sometimes two questions from the same decade!).

 

  Winter 2013 Summer 2013 Winter 2012 Summer 2012 Winter 2011 Summer 2011 Winter 2010 Summer 2010 Winter 2009 Summer 2009 Winter 2008 Summer 2008 Winter 2007 Summer 2007 Winter 2006
Summer 2006

Winter 2005

Summer 2005

Winter 2004

Summer 2004

Winter 2003

Summer 2003

Winter 2002

Summer 2002

Winter 2001

Summer 2001

Causes of World War One

(a)

5 marks

  What was the Triple Alliance? Describe the arms race in the early part of the twentieth century.   Describe the first Moroccan Crisis, 1905–6. What military and diplomatic commitments had European countries made with each
other by 1914?
Describe the colonial rivalry which existed among the Great Powers by 1900. Describe the Bosnian Crisis of 1908–09.   Describe the part played by Germany in the arms race in the early years of the twentieth
century.
What was the Entente Cordiale of 1904? na Describe the system of alliances which existed between European countries in 1914. na na Describe the colonial rivalry that existed between Germany and other powers by 1900.

Describe the Balkan Wars of 1912-13.  

Describe the Alliance System which existed among European powers before 1914.

Describe the Anglo-German naval rivalry that existed in the early years of the twentieth century.

What was the Entente Cordiale?

Describe the Moroccan Crisis of 1905.

Describe the Balkan Wars of 1908-1913.

Describe assassination of 1914.

Describe the French alliances which existed prior to World War One.

Describe the French preparations for war in 1914.

Describe the Anglo-German naval race.

(b)

7 marks

  Why was the tension between Germany and the Great Powers increased by the arms race of
the early-twentieth century?
Why did events in Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1908 increase tension between the Great Powers?   Why was the Bosnian Crisis (1908–9) important in the period leading up to the First World
War?
Why were relations tense between Britain and Germany between 1900 and 1914? Why was the tension between the Great Powers increased by events in Morocco in 1911? Why was there a ‘naval race’ between Britain and Germany?   Why did the Alliance System create tension between the Great Powers at that time? Why was there a crisis over Morocco in 1905? na Why did the two crises in Morocco increase tension between European powers? na na Why did the Kaiser become involved in Morocco between 1905-1911?

Why were the tensions between the Great Powers increased by the Bosnian Crisis of 1908?

Why did the Moroccan crises of 1905 and 1911 increase tension between Germany and Britain?

Why did France begin to mobilise its forces in early August 1914?

Why was there a crisis over Morocco in 1911?

Why did the crisis over Bosnia-Herzegovina not bring war to Europe?

Why were the Balkans a source of international tension in the years before WWI?

Explain why Austria wanted to take action against Serbia

Explain Anglo-German rivalry.

Explain why France mobilised its army in 1914.

Explain why colonial rivalry developed before 1914.

(c)

10 marks

  ‘Morocco posed a greater threat to peace than did Bosnia in the years before the First World
War.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
‘It was the Alliance System that caused the First World War.’ How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer.
  How far was Germany responsible for causing the First World War? Explain your answer. How far did problems in the Balkans cause the First World War? Explain your answer. ‘Events in Bosnia in 1908 were more significant than the Balkan Wars of 1912–13 in bringing
war closer.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
German actions caused the First World War.’ How far do you agree with this
statement?
Explain your answer.
  ‘The Balkan Wars, 1912-13, were more responsible for the First World War than the
assassination of Franz Ferdinand.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your
answer.
The rise of Serbia was more responsible than German militarism for the First World
War.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
na ‘The main reason for Britain going to war in 1914 was the German invasion of Belgium.’
How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
na na "The Anglo-German naval race was the most important cause of war in 1914" - Discuss.

How far was German militarism the most important cause of war in 1914? Explain your answer.

‘The most important reason why Britain went to war in 1914 was the German invasion of Belgium’. How far do you agree with this statement?

'In August 1914 a German army marched into Belgium.' Was this action the main reason for the First World War?

Naval rivalry was the main cause of the First World War’. How far do agree with this statement? Explain your answer.

How far was Germany to blame for the coming of war in 1914? Explain your answer.

Why did the 1914 Balkan crisis cause European war, but earlier crises did not?

Evaluate whether the assassination of 1914 made war inevitable

Evaluate the view that alliances encouraged countries to act in warlike manner.

Evaluate the view that nationalism caused World War One.

Evaluate the view that Germany caused World War One.

International Relations 1919-39

(Q1)

(a)

5 marks

What military restrictions were imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles? What were the successes of the League of Nations in the 1920s? What were the weaknesses of Britain and France as leaders of the League of Nations? What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles in relation to territorial changes? What were the roles of (i) the Assembly and (ii) the Mandates Commission in the League of
Nations?
In what ways was the Treaty of Versailles designed to restrict Germany’s ability to
attack France?
What were Germany’s main territorial losses under the Treaty of Versailles? What did Wilson hope to achieve from the peace settlement of 1919–20? What did Lloyd George want to achieve from the peace settlement of 1919-20? What were the main weaknesses in the structure and organisation of the League of Nations? Describe the humanitarian work of the League of Nations in the 1920s. What military restrictions did the Treaty of Versailles impose on Germany? In what ways did the Treaty of Versailles weaken Germany’s armed forces? What did Clemenceau want to achieve from the peace settlement of 1919–20? Describe the successes of the League of Nations in peacekeeping in the 1920s. What were the main aims of the League of Nations when it was set up in 1920?

Describe the successes of the League of Nations in the 1920s.

 

What military restrictions were imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles?

Describe what Clemenceau and Lloyd George each wanted to achieve in the Treaty of Versailles.

What were Germany’s main territorial losses under the Treaty of Versailles?

How did the League of Nations hope to prevent future wars between nations?

In what ways did the Treaty of Versailles weaken the German economy?

Describe two successes of the League of Nations in the 1920s.

Describe how the peace treaties affected France.

Describe mandates and plebiscites.

Describe how German armaments were limited by the Treaty of Versailles.

(b)

7 marks

Why was Clemenceau disappointed with the peace settlement? Why did the USA’s failure to become a member create problems for the League? Why did some countries view the setting up of the League of Nations with suspicion? Why was it difficult to make a peace settlement which would please all the Allies? Why did the League of Nations have some successes in the first ten years of its existence? Why did the Treaty of Versailles punish Germany? Why was Clemenceau dissatisfied with the Treaty of Versailles? Why did Clemenceau and Lloyd George disagree over how to treat Germany? Why were German people horrified when they discovered the terms of the Treaty of Versailles? Why did the Depression make the work of the League more difficult? Why was the League able to achieve some successes in the 1920s in dealing with
international disputes?
Why did the ‘Big three’ disagree over how to treat Germany? Why did Clemenceau demand that a harsh peace be imposed on Germany? Why did the terms of the Treaty of Versailles cause so much bitterness in Germany? Explain how the Japanese invasion of Manchuria showed the weaknesses of the League. Why did its structure and membership weaken the League?

Why did the League fail to deal with Japanese aggression against Manchuria?

Why did the aims of the ‘Big Three’ differ?

Why did the Treaty of Versailles cause problems for Germany in the years up to 1923?

Why was Germany dissatisfied with the Versailles peace treaty?

 

Why did the League of Nations fail to restrict the aggression of Japan in the 1930s?

Why did Germany dislike the Treaty of Versailles?

Explain why the League was quite successful in the 1920s.

Explain why some countries viewed setting up the League of Nations with suspicion

 

Explain why the Versailles treaty was harsh on Germany.

Explain why the disarmament conference 1932-3 failed.

(c)

10 marks

‘Germany deserved the treatment it received in the Versailles Treaty.’ How far do you agree
with this statement? Explain your answer.
‘Italy was more responsible than Britain and France for the failure of the League of Nations.’
How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
How far was the League of Nations a failure in its peacekeeping role in the 1920s? Explain
your answer.
'Most Germans were horrified by the terms of the Treaty.’ How justified was this reaction?
Explain your answer.
‘The League of Nations Failed because of Britain and France.’ How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer.
‘The peacemakers of 1919–20 dealt successfully with the problems they faced.’ How
far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
‘The Germans had genuine grounds for complaint about the Treaty of Versailles.’ How far do
you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
‘The Treaty of Versailles was a fair settlement.’ How far do you agree with this
statement?
Explain your answer.
‘The Treaty of Versailles was too harsh on Germany.’ How far do you agree with this statement?
Explain your answer.
To what extent was the League of Nations a success in its peacekeeping role? Explain your
answer.
‘How far can the World Depression be blamed for the failure of the League? Explain
your answer.
How far could the Treaty be justified at the time? Explain your answer. ‘The Treaty of Versailles was unfair on Germany.’ How far do you agree with this statement?
Explain your answer.
‘The peacemakers of 1919–23 coped successfully with the problems they faced.’ How far do
you agree?
Which was the more important cause of the failure of the League of Nations – the World
Depression of the 1930s or the invasion of Abyssinia?
How far was the League of Nations a success?

It was the Abyssinian crisis that destroyed the League of Nations as an effective peacekeeping body’ How far do you agree with this statement?

  How successful was the League of Nations in the 1920s?

Was the Treaty of Versailles fair?

How successful was the League of Nations in dealing with disputes during the 1920s? Explain your answer.

How far was the League of Nations a failure? Explain your answer.

To what extent was the Treaty of Versailles a sensible treaty in the circumstances of the time? Explain your answer.

Evaluate how far League of Nations failed because of the Depression.

Evaluate the view that structural weaknesses caused failure of League of Nations in 1920s

Evaluate how far Germany accepted the Versailles treaty by end of 1923.

Evaluate how far the disarmament conference showed that League of Nations was a failure.

International Relations 1919-39

(Q2)

(a)

5 marks

Describe events in the Rhineland in 1936. What were Hitler’s foreign policy aims? Describe how Germany re-established control over the Saar and the Rhineland. Describe Hitler’s policy towards Austria between 1934 and 1938. Describe what was agreed about the Saar in the Treaty of Versailles, and what happened in
1935 as a result.
What steps did the League of Nations take against Japan following the invasion of
Manchuria?
What methods were available to the League of Nations to settle disputes between countries? What did Hitler achieve by the Anschluss? What happened at the Munich Conference in 1938? What actions did Hitler take between 1933 and 1937 to destroy the Treaty of Versailles? Describe the remilitarisation of the Rhineland in 1936. Describe the work of the Agencies of the League of Nations. How did the League of Nations hope to prevent future wars between nations? In what ways did Hitler build up his armed forces before 1936? What was agreed at the Munich Conference of September 1938? When Hitler came to power, what did he aim to achieve in foreign policy?

Describe the events in the Saar in 1935.

What were the aims of Hitler’s foreign policy?

What were the aims of the League of Nations?

How did the 1935 plebiscite change the situation in the Saar?

When Hitler came to power, what did he hope to achieve in foreign policy?

What was the Hoare-Laval Pact?

Describe the Manchurian crisis.

Describe the way Hitler broke the Treaty of Versailles from 1933 to end of 1938.

Describe the events leading to Anschluss.

Describe the Munich agreement.

(b)

7 marks

Why was appeasement beneficial to Britain? Why was the re-militarisation of the Rhineland a success for Hitler? Why did Hitler want to unite Germany and Austria? Why did some people argue that the policy of appeasement followed by Britain and France
was wrong?
Why did Britain and France fail to resist the Anschluss? Why did the Depression cause problems for the League? Why did some major powers not join the League of Nations? Why did Hitler want to take over Czechoslovakia? Why did Stalin sign the Nazi-Soviet Pact? Why was Hitler able to unite Germany with Austria in 1938? Why did Hitler want to unite Germany and Austria? Why was the structure of the League a weakness? Why did the League fail to stop Italian aggression against Corfu in 1923? Why was remilitarisation of the Rhineland a risk for Hitler? Why was the Nazi-Soviet Pact of August 1939 important? Explain how Hitler destroyed the Treaty of Versailles.

Why did Britain and France allow Germany to remilitarise the Rhineland in 1936?

 

Why was Hitler’s foreign policy successful up to 1938?

 

Why did the League of Nations have some success during the 1920s?

 

Explain why Hitler wanted the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939?

 

Why did Britain go to war over Poland in 1939?

 

Why was the conquest of Abyssinia by Italy not prevented by the League of Nations?

 

Explain why Italy defeated Abyssinia.

 

Explain why UK and France followed policy of appeasement.

 

Explain why Britain and France allowed Anschluss.

 

Explain why the Nazi-Soviet pact was important.

 

(c)

10 marks

‘War in Europe started in 1939 because of decisions taken at Munich in 1938.’ How far do you
agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
‘Increased militarism was the main cause of the SecondWorld War.’ How far do you agree
with this statement? Explain your answer.
‘Hitler’s aggression was the main reason war broke out in 1939.’ How far do you agree with
this statement? Explain your answer.
‘Hitler had achieved his foreign policy aims by the end of 1938.’ How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer.
How far was the outbreak of war in 1939 Hitler’s fault? Explain your answer. ‘The League of Nations was based on sound ideas.’ How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer.
‘The lack of an army was the main reason for the League’s failure in Manchuria.’ How far do
you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
‘The policy of appeasement was a mistake.’ How far do you agree with this statement?
Explain your answer.
How far was Hitler’s foreign policy to blame for war in 1939? Explain your answer. ‘The Nazi-Soviet Pact played a greater part in causing war in 1939 than did the policy of
appeasement.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
How far was the policy of appeasement followed by Britain and France responsible for
the outbreak of war in 1939? Explain your answer.
How successful was the League of Nations in dealing with disputes in the 1920s and
1930s?
‘The League was a failure’. How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. ‘The policy of appeasement was a failure.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain
your answer.
How far was the Treaty of Versailles to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939? Explain your
answer.
How far was appeasement justified? - Explain your answer.

‘Hitler’s desire for lebensraum was the most important reason for the outbreak of the war in 1939.’ Do you agree?

How far was the Nazi-Soviet Pact responsible for causing war in Europe?

How far can the failure of the League of Nations in the 1930s be blamed on the Great Depression?

‘The policy of appeasement was justified’. How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.

How far was the Treaty of Versailles to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939? Explain your answer.

To what extent can the outbreak of war in 1939 be blamed upon the failure of the League of Nations?

Evaluate the importance of Hitler’s pacts with Italy and Japan.

Evaluate the view that ‘Hitler was a gambler rather than a planner’ in foreign affairs.

Evaluate the view that Hitler’s policies in Austria and Czechoslovakia were complete success.

Evaluate the view that WWII was caused by British and French mistakes 1938-9.

Cold War

(a)

5 marks

What actions did the Soviet Union take against the Hungarian people in 1956? What was decided at the Yalta Conference of February 1945? Describe how Poland came under Communist control. What part did the Ho Chi Minh Trail play in the Vietnam War? What was decided at the Potsdam Conference? What measures were taken in 1961 to prevent movement of people between East and
West Berlin
?
What was the ‘Gulf of Tonkin’ incident? What decisions, in relation to Germany, were agreed at Yalta and Potsdam? Describe the Bay of Pigs incident. What did Stalin gain from the Yalta conference? What was agreed at the Yalta Conference of February 1945? What did the Geneva Agreements of 1954 decide about the future of Vietnam? What was the ‘Cold War’? Describe the response of the USA to Castro’s takeover of Cuba. Describe events in Korea between 1945 and June 1950. What was agreed at the Potsdam Conference?

Who were the Vietcong?

 

What was the iron curtain?

 

Describe how the Berlin Wall affected the people living in Berlin.

What was decided at the Yalta Conference, 1945?

What was decided at the Yalta Conference?

What was the Ho Chi Minh Trail?

Describe the role of the Vietcong.

Describe the Yalta Agreement.

Describe how Poland and Czechoslovakia became communist after 1945.

Describe relations between USA and Cuba 1959-62.

(b)

7 marks

Why did the Hungarian Uprising take place? Why was there mistrust between the Soviet Union and the Western Powers in 1945? Why, by 1946, were the wartime Allies less united? Why was the Tet Offensive important? Why did the wartime unity of the Allies break down between 1945 and 1947? Why did the Polish government attempt to suppress ‘Solidarity’ in the early 1980s? Explain the methods used by President Nixon in an attempt to gain ‘peace with honour’ in
Vietnam.
Why was the Truman Doctrine significant? Why did the Soviet Union place missiles on Cuba? Why did tensions between the USSR and the Western Allies increase at the Potsdam
conference
?
Why did the USA introduce the Marshall Plan? Why did Johnson increase American involvement in Vietnam? Why did tension between the Soviet Union and the West increase after the Potsdam
Conference
?
Why was the Bay of Pigs invasion a failure for the USA? Explain why the United Nations became involved in the Korean War. Why was there continuing tension over Berlin, 1945-49?

Why did the USA get involved in Vietnam?

 

 

Why was Marshall Aid offered to countries in Europe?

 

 

Why was the Berlin Wall built?  

 

Explain why the Soviet Union blockaded Berlin.

 

Why was Eastern Europe largely in the hands of the USSR by 1946?

Why did the USA find it impossible to defeat the Vietcong?

 

Explain why the Vietnam war became increasingly unpopular.

 

Explain why the West were suspicious of the USSR 1945-7.

Explain why the wartime alliance broke down 1945-7.

 

Explain why the Cuban Missile Crisis caused so such alarm.

 

(c)

10 marks

How far could Solidarity be blamed for the decline of Soviet control over Eastern Europe? ‘The Berlin Blockade was the main reason ofr increasing Cold War tension in the eyars
1947–9.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
‘The Marshall Plan was more important than the Berlin Blockade in increasing Cold War
tensions.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
‘The US withdrew from Vietnam because of public opinion in America.’ How far do you agree
with this statement? Explain your answer.
‘The Truman Doctrine was more responsible for increasing Cold War tension than the Berlin
Blockade.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
‘The collapse of Soviet control in Eastern Europe was not the fault of Gorbachev.’ How
far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
‘America withdrew from Vietnam because of military failure.’ How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer.
‘It was the Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe that caused the Cold War.’ How far do
you agree with this statement?
Explain your answer.
‘The USA gained more than the USSR from the Cuban Missile Crisis.’ How far do you agree
with this statement? Explain your answer.
Who was more to blame for starting the Cold War, the USA or the USSR? Explain your answer. How far was the Cold War caused by Truman’s hostility towards the Soviet Union?
Explain your answer.
How successful was American foreign policy towards Cuba and Vietnam? Explain
your answer.
‘The main reason for the escalation of the Cold War in the years 1947– 49 was the Berlin
Blockade
.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
‘The Cuban Missile Crisis was never a threat to world peace.’ How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer.
‘The United Nations was more successful in Korea than in the Congo.’ How far do you agree
with this statement? Explain your answer.
"It was Truman, not Stalin, who brought about the Cold War" - Discuss

How far can the American withdrawal from Vietnam be blamed on military failure? Explain your answer.

‘The Berlin Blockade brought Europe close to war’. How far do you agree with statement?

How far can the decline of Soviet Power in Eastern Europe be blamed on the Solidarity movement? Explain your answer.

‘The Soviet Union was to blame for the Cold War.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.  

Only Stalin of the Allies achieved what he wanted as a result of the war with Germany'. Do you agree? Explain your answer.

How far was US public opinion the most important reason for the America's withdrawal from Vietnam? Explain your answer.

Evaluate the success of the US in Vietnam 1963-1975.

Evaluate the view that the attitudes of Churchill and Truman, not Stalin, caused the Cold War

Evaluate who had more successful policies in Europe 1945-9: the USA or the USSR?

Evaluate whether Kennedy or Khrushchev handled the Cuban Missile Crisis better.

UNO / Cold War

(a)

5 marks

How are decisions made by the United Nations General Assembly? Describe the key features of the Bay of Pigs incident. Describe the work of (i) the Secretariat of the UNO and (ii) the International Court of Justice. What actions by Nagy’s government in Hungary alarmed Khrushchev? What actions did the USA take against Cuba before the Bay of Pigs invasion? Describe the structure of the United Nations Organisation (UNO). What was the ‘Prague Spring’? Describe the immediate impact on US–Cuban relations (up to January 1961) of Castro
coming to power.
Describe the membership and role of the United Nations Security Council. What did the founders of the United Nations hope it would achieve? Describe the structure of the United Nations Organisation. Describe events in Hungary in October and November 1956 What was the Berlin Wall? What was the ‘Domino Theory’? Describe relations between Cuba and the USA in the period 1959-1961. Describe how the Soviet Union reacted to events in Hungary in 1956.

Describe the structure of the UNO.

 

 

Describe the USA’s response up to 1961 to Castro’s takeover of Cuba.

 

Describe relations between Cuba and the USA in the period 1959-1961.

Describe the events in Hungary in 1956.

Describe the Bay of Pigs incident.

 

Describe the work of any two of the agencies of the UNO.

Describe the structure of UNO.

Describe the effects of Berlin Wall.

Describe Glasnost.

Describe the aims of UNO.

(b)

7 marks

Why has the increased number of member countries brought problems for the United Nations? Why did Kennedy decide to blockade Cuba? Why has the organisation of the UNO hindered its effectiveness? Why was the Berlin Wall built in 1961? Why was the Bay of Pigs invasion a failure? Why did the United Nations become involved in the Korean War? Why did Berlin remain a focus of Cold War tensions during the 1960s? Why did the Bay of Pigs (April 1961) invasion result in humiliation for Kennedy? Why has the organisation of the United Nations made it hard for it to be effective? Why did the United Nations become involved in the Congo in 1960-61? Why did the UN become involved in the Korean War? Why did Warsaw Pact forces invade Czechoslovakia in 1968? Why was there a rising in Hungary in 1956? Why did the Vietnam War become increasingly unpopular with the people of America? Why did Khrushchev send missiles to Cuba? Why was the Soviet Union worried by developments in Czechoslovakia in Spring 1968?

Why has the way the UNO is organised made it hard for it to be effective?

 

 

Why was the USA concerned about Soviet missiles in Cuba?

 

 

Why was the USA concerned about Soviet missiles in Cuba? 

 

Why did the USSR invade Czechoslovakia in 1968?

 

Why did the USSR install missile bases in Cuba?

 

Why have most countries become members of the UNO?

 

Explain why UNO became involved in Congo.

 

Explain why the Berlin Wall was built.

 

Explain why Solidarity was formed.

 

Explain why the UNO intervened in Korea.

 

(c)

10 marks

How effective has the United Nations been in carrying out its humanitarian work? Explain
your answer.
‘There was not a winner in the Cuban Missile Cr isis.’ How far do you agree with this statement?
Explain your answer.
‘The intervention of the UNO in Korea was more successful than its intervention in the Congo.’
How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
How far was the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern Europe due to the influence of
‘Solidarity’? Explain your answer.
‘The main reason Khrushchev put missiles on Cuba was for defensive purposes.’ How far do
you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
How successful has the United Nations been? Explain your answer. How significant was the part played by Solidarity in the loss of Soviet control in Eastern
Europe? Explain your answer.
‘The Cuban Missile Crisis was a success for the US policy of containment.’ How far
do you agree with this statement?
Explain your answer.
‘The Korean War was a success for the United Nations.’ How far do you agree with this
statement? Explain your answer.
How successful has the United Nations been in its social and economic work? Explain your
answer.
How successful was the UN in Korea? Explain your answer. How far were the policies of Gorbachev responsible for the collapse of Soviet control
over Eastern Europe? Explain your answer.
Which was the more serious threat to Soviet control of Eastern Europe:
events in Czechoslovakia in 1968;
the emergence of Solidarity in Poland?
‘The USA was unsuccessful in Vietnam because of the opposition’s use of guerrilla tactics.’
How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
‘Khrushchev handled the Cuban Crisis better than Kennedy.’ How far do you agree with this
statement?
How important was "Solidarity" in the decline of Soviet influence in Eastern Europe? Explain your answer.

How successful was the UNO in the Congo crisis?

 

‘There was never any real risk of war over Cuba’. How far do you agree with this statement?

Khrushchev claimed that the Cuban Missile Crisis was a victory for the Soviet Union. Do you agree with this view? Explain your answer.

‘Gorbachev was responsible for the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern Europe.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.

'The Cuban Missile Crisis was not as serious as it appeared at the time'. Do you agree? Explain your answer.

How far has the importance of the UNO increased since 1945? Explain your answer. 

Evaluate importance of UNO in the Korean War.

Evaluate whether there was a serious chance of a ‘hot war’ breaking out in Europe.

Evaluate the view that Communism collapsed because of Gorbachev.

Evaluate the view that Congo crisis demonstrated success of UNO.