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Historiographical Overview: This information sheet outlines the essential historiographical debate - namely, the Fischer Thesis, which suggested that both World Wars were essentially caused by the same consistent factor - namely, German aggression. The task of students will be to decide how far they agree with this idea.
Research Template: Students are then presented with a research template which has NINE key causes of each World War listed within it. "Divide these causes between the members of the group.Research your allocated factor(s) with relation to your particular war. Produce a one-slide presentation which will summarise your findings for the rest of the class".
Overview of the procedure: This handout explains how the group working on World War One will present their findings first, and that this will be followed by a whole-class exercise linking the factors together and some historiography work (below). The same format is repeated with relation to World War Two.
Introductory video clip: AJP Taylor outlines the "Fischer Controversy"
With both wars now considered separately, we are in a position to judge whether the "Fischer Thesis" (that both wars can primarily be explained through reference to a consistently aggressive German foreign policy) is accurate.
Main Task: Was Hitler's foreign policy traditional, or unprecedented?
In this activity students use extracts from the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, an Interview with Hitler, Mein Kampf and the September Programme to decide where they stand in regard to the Fischer controversy.
Model Essay by RJ Tarr (note: teacher password required)
At this point, students should return to their original research template to complete the final column, which asks them to make some observations about whether the various factors for each war are areas of comparison and contrast. This can then be used as the basis for an essay on the causes of either war, or an essay comparing them both. The model essay provided here was written by the author of this website in timed conditions and could be given to students for extra stimulus after they have finished their own work.
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Events (300 years ago today): 1720 – Sweden and Prussia sign the Treaty of Stockholm.
Births (200 years ago today): 1820 – Joseph Wolf, German ornithologist and illustrator (d. 1899)
Births (100 years ago today): 1920 – Errol Barrow, first Prime Minister of Barbados (d. 1987)
Births (50 years ago today): 1970 – Alen Bok?i?, former Croatian footballer
Deaths (1600 years ago today): 420 – Yazdegerd I, king of the Sassanid Empire
Deaths (700 years ago today): 1320 – Árni Helgason, Icelandic bishop (b. c. 1260)
Deaths (350 years ago today): 1670 – Claude Duval, French highwayman (b. 1643)
Deaths (150 years ago today): 1870 – Alexander Herzen, Russian philosopher and author (b. 1812)
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