Early Modern British:
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Lutheran Reformation | Zwingli/Calvin/ Radicals | Counter-Reformation | Ferdinand/Isabella | Charles I/Phillip II | Ottoman Empire | French Revolution / Napoleon
Rise of 20thC Dictators | Rule of 20thC Dictators
Origins of Wars | WW1 / WW2: origins compared
Tsar Alexander II
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IGCSE Revision and Study Skills
•IGCSE Paper 1 Model Answers
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Historiographical Overview: This information sheet outlines the essential historiographical debate - namely, the Fischer Thesis, which suggested that both World Wars were essentially caused by the same consistent factor - namely, German aggression. The task of students will be to decide how far they agree with this idea.
Research Template: Students are then presented with a research template which has NINE key causes of each World War listed within it. "Divide these causes between the members of the group.Research your allocated factor(s) with relation to your particular war. Produce a one-slide presentation which will summarise your findings for the rest of the class".
Overview of the procedure: This handout explains how the group working on World War One will present their findings first, and that this will be followed by a whole-class exercise linking the factors together and some historiography work (below). The same format is repeated with relation to World War Two.
Introductory video clip: AJP Taylor outlines the "Fischer Controversy"
With both wars now considered separately, we are in a position to judge whether the "Fischer Thesis" (that both wars can primarily be explained through reference to a consistently aggressive German foreign policy) is accurate.
Main Task: Was Hitler's foreign policy traditional, or unprecedented?
In this activity students use extracts from the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, an Interview with Hitler, Mein Kampf and the September Programme to decide where they stand in regard to the Fischer controversy.
Model Essay by RJ Tarr (note: teacher password required)
At this point, students should return to their original research template to complete the final column, which asks them to make some observations about whether the various factors for each war are areas of comparison and contrast. This can then be used as the basis for an essay on the causes of either war, or an essay comparing them both. The model essay provided here was written by the author of this website in timed conditions and could be given to students for extra stimulus after they have finished their own work.
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20-question factual test: Europeans in China
Sourcework Questions: The Boxer Uprising
The Boxer Uprising
Sourcework Questions: The Opium Wars | Model answers
The Opium Wars: Multimedia Presentation / Decision-Making Exercise (22 slides plus video clips)
Sourcework: Was the British reaction to the Indian Mutiny justified? | Model answers for final three questions
Matrix Exercise: The results of the Indian Mutiny
Extension / Homework activity: Whats in a name? Whats in a logo?
Why, and with what effects, did Indians resist British rule?
Sourcework: King Leopold II and the Congo
Comparisons and Contrasts: French, Belgian and British approaches to Empire
How varied were the impacts of European imperialism on Africans? | teacher notes
10-question test: Europeans in Africa
What were the motives behind European imperialism in Africa?
Hitlers Foreign Policy: Model Answers