Dictators: Rise of 20thC Dictators | Rule of 20thC Dictators
Wars: Origins of Wars | WW1 / WW2: origins compared
Tsar Alexander II
Tsar Alexander III
IGCSE Revision and Study Skills
•IGCSE Paper 1 Model Answers
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Early Modern British:
Henry VII | Henry VIII 1509-1529 | Henry VIII 1529-1547 | Edward VI | Mary I | Elizabeth I
Lutheran Reformation | Zwingli/Calvin/ Radicals | Counter-Reformation | Ferdinand/Isabella | Charles I/Phillip II | Ottoman Empire | French Revolution / Napoleon
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The Caesar cipher is a substitution cipher in which each letter in the message is 'shifted' a certain number of places down the alphabet. For example, with a shift of 1, A is replaced by B, B would become C, and so on.
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Events (150 years ago today): 1870 – Franco-Prussian War: The Battle of Spicheren is fought, resulting in a Prussian victory.
Births (100 years ago today): 1920 – Selma Diamond, Canadian-American actress and screenwriter (d. 1985)
Births (50 years ago today): 1970 – M. Night Shyamalan, Indian-American director, producer, and screenwriter
Deaths (100 years ago today): 1920 – Stefan Bastyr, Polish pilot and author (b. 1890)
Deaths (50 years ago today): 1970 – Nikos Tsiforos, Greek director and screenwriter (b. 1912)
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